Contributors:Elena Eva, Marco Giovanni Malusa, Stefano Solarino
Supporting Information for the article entitled " Seismotectonics at the transition between opposite-dipping slabs (western Alpine region)" written by E. Eva, M.G. Malusà and S. Solarino.
Contents of this file: Details on data processing; Distribution of P+S phase picks for the stations used in this study; Data selected for the comparison between LSQR and SVD performances; Vertical errors calculated using HypoDD with SVD; Focal mechanisms computed for this study; Dataset after HypoDD relocation.
A dataset comprising 55 molecules described by seven criteria was used. The criteria are composed of binding activity values for each target expressed as half maximal activity concentration (AC50), based on the dose-response curves, thus the smaller the concentration, the more active the molecules.
Table 1s. Fault plane solution parameters of studied events. The table reports date, origin time, strike, dip and slip for first (N1_Str1, N1_dip1, N1_slip1) and second (N2_Str2, N2_dip2, N2_slip2) nodal planes, azimuth and plunge of P and T axes, FPS category (grade), number of polarities (p_n), quality factor for earthquakes Q.
In this folder are stored the data used in the Data in Brief article "Hydro-stratigraphic datasets for the reconstruction of a large scale 3D FEM numerical model in the Milan metropolitan area (northern Italy)" (Previati A., et al., 2020).
1. "SHP" folder contains the side boundaries of the model (Model_Domain.shp), the top and bottom boundaries (Ground_Surface_Elevation.shp, Model_Bottom.shp), the limit surface (Phreatic_Aquifer_Bottom.shp) between the shallow phreatic and the lower semi-confined aquifers and the hydraulic head isolines as on 2016 (Hydraulic_head_Isolines.shp).
2. "3DFEM_Mesh_Parameters.txt" contains the location (X, Y, Z Coordinate system EPSG:3003) of the mesh nodes and the associated parameters (hydraulic conductivity and porosity) as well as the grain size class, the aquifer system and the depositional system (see the associated article for a detailed description).
This section covered our appendix data which is not shown in the manuscript, Appendix 1 is the magmatic and metamorphic age of bed rock in south Tibet from literature, Appendix 2 is the whole sand ( petrography ) and heavy mineral composition from Lhasa river, Nianchu and Pumchu respectively, the other four Appendixes from 3 to 6 are detrital zircon, monazite, titanite and rutile geochemical and U-Th-Pb dating.
- Table S1 Sandstone petrography data support the Figure 4 in the main article.
- Table S2 U-Pb ages of detrital zircons support the Figure 6 in the main article.
- Table S3 Hf isotope of detrital zircons support the Figure 7 in the main article.
Contributors:Roberto Ambrosini, Marco Parolini, Roberto Azzoni, Andrea Franzetti, FRANCESCA PITTINO et al
Microplastic abundance in 6 supraglacial debris samples collected on On 20 July 2018 and 24 July 2018 on the Forni Glacier (Italian Alps, approximate coordinates of sampling location 46°12’30’’ N, 10°13’50’’ E, altitude 2580 m a.s.l.).
Sampling large river´s sediment at outlets for cosmogenic nuclide analysis yields mean denudation rates of the sediment producing areas that average local variations in denudation commonly found in small rivers. Using this approach, we measured in situ cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be concentrations in sands of >50 large rivers over a range of climatic and tectonic regimes covering 32% of Earth’s terrestrial surface. River samples were processed in the Helmholtz Laboratory for the Geochemistry of the Earth Surface (HELGES) (von Blanckenburg et al., 2016). 10Be/9Be ratios were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Cologne and normalized to the KN01-6-2 and KN01-5-3 standards. Denudation rates were calculated using a time-dependent scaling scheme according to Lal/Stone ”Lm” scaling (see Balco et al., 2008) together with a sea level high latitude (SLHL) production rate of 4.13 at/(gxyr) as reported by Martin et al. (2017). Measured in the mineral quartz, the cosmogenic nuclides 26Al and 10Be provide information on how fast Earth´s surface is lowering through denudation. If sediment is however stored in catchments over time spans similar to the nuclides half-lives (being 0.7 Myr and 1.4 Myr for 26Al and 10Be, respectively), the nuclide´s budget is disturbed, and meaningful denudation rates cannot be calculated. The ratio of 26Al/10Be informs us about these disturbances. In 35% of analyzed rivers, we find 26Al/10Be ratios significantly lower than these nuclides´ surface production rate ratio of 6.75 in quartz, indicating sediment storage and burial exceeding 0.5 Myr. We invoke mainly a combination of slow erosion, long transport, and low runoff for these low ratios. In the other 65% of rivers we find 26Al/10Be ratios within uncertainty of their surface production-rate ratio, indicating cosmogenic steady state, and hence meaningful denudation rates can be calculated. For these rivers, we derive a global source-area denudation rate of 140 t/km^2/yr that translates to a flux of 3.10 Gt/yr. By assuming that this sub-dataset is geomorphically representative of the global land surface, we upscale this value to the total surface area for exorheic basins, thereby obtaining a global denudation flux from cosmogenic nuclides of 15.1 Gt/yr that integrates over the past 5 kyr. In Table S1, we provide detailed 10Be nuclide production rates and their correction due to ice shielding and carbonates that are necessary to calculate denudation rates. We provide International GeoSample Numbers (ISGN) for samples used in the analysis, except values that were compiled from published sources. We then compare these denudation rates, converted to sediment fluxes, to published values of sediment fluxes from river load gauging. We find that our cosmogenic nuclide-derived sediment flux value is similar, within uncertainty, to published values from cosmogenic nuclides from small river basins (23 Gt/yr) upscaled using a global slope model, and modern sediment and dissolved loads exported to the oceans (23.6 Gt/yr). In Table S3, we compiled these modern sediment loads and give their references. We also compiled runoff values (mm/yr) from published sources (Table S2) that are used to infer what controls denudation rates. For more details on the sampling and analytical methods, please consult the data description part of this publication.