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  • Additional file 1 of Association between total and leisure time physical activity and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke – a Swedish cohort study
    Additional file 1:Supplementary Figure 1. A directed acyclic graph (DAG).
    • Document
  • Association between total and leisure time physical activity and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke – a Swedish cohort study
    Abstract Background Physical inactivity is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but it is unclear if total and leisure time activity have different impact on the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. In this cohort, we aimed to investigate the associations between both total and leisure time physical activity in detail, and the risks of myocardial infarction and stroke, both overall and for men and women separately. Methods We assessed the association between total and leisure time physical activity on the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in a cohort of 31,580 men and women through record linkages from 1997–2016. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on detailed self-reported physical activity. In the adjusted analyses, we included age, sex, body mass index, level of education, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, lipid disturbance and hypertension as potential confounders. Results We identified 1,621 incident cases of myocardial infarction and 1,879 of stroke. Among men, there was an inverse association between leisure time activity and myocardial infarction in the third tertile compared to the first (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.62–0.98; p for trend = 0.03). We also found an inverse association between leisure time activity and stroke in the third tertile compared to the first (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.61–0.99; p for trend = 0.04), while the corresponding HR for stroke among women was 0.91; 95% CI: 0.74–1.13. We found no significant association between total physical activity and MI (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 0.93–1.34) or stroke (HR: 1.14 95% CI: 0.94–1.39) comparing the highest to the lowest tertile in men. Women in the highest tertile of total physical activity had a 22% lower risk of myocardial infarction compared to the lowest tertile (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.63–0.97; p for trend = 0.02) and an 8% (95% CI: 0.87–0.98) reduced risk of myocardial infarction with each 1 METh/day increase of leisure time physical activity. Conclusion Total physical activity was inversely associated with the risk of myocardial infarction in women, while leisure time physical activity was inversely associated with the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in men.
    • Collection
  • The role of maternal age on the risk of preterm birth among singletons and multiples: a retrospective cohort study in Lombardy, Norther Italy
    Abstract Background All over the world, especially in the developed countries, maternal age at birth is rising. This study aimed to assess the role of maternal age on the occurrence of preterm birth (PTB) in a large birth cohort of Lombardy Region, Northern Italy. Methods This population-based study used data from regional healthcare utilization databases of Lombardy to identify women who delivered between 2007 and 2017. PTBs were defined as births before 37 completed weeks of gestation and considered according to the gestational age (two categories: 40 age categories). PTB before 32 completed weeks occurred more frequently in the same age categories, except that among multiples no association with advanced maternal age emerged. Conclusion Our study suggested that, after adjustment for potential confounders, both advance and young maternal age were associated with an increased risk of PTB.
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  • Additional file 1 of The role of maternal age on the risk of preterm birth among singletons and multiples: a retrospective cohort study in Lombardy, Norther Italy
    Additional file 1.
    • Document
  • Additional file 2 of Association between total and leisure time physical activity and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke – a Swedish cohort study
    Additional file 2. Cubic spline models. LPA = Leisure time physical activity,TPA = Total physical activity.
    • Dataset
  • Additional file 3 of Association between total and leisure time physical activity and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke – a Swedish cohort study
    Additional file 3:Supplementary Table 1. Distribution of METh per physical activity category during weekday presented for women and men in the Swedish National March Cohort.
    • Document
  • Network Structure Learning Under Uncertain Interventions
    Gaussian Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) represent a powerful tool for learning the network of dependencies among variables, a task which is of primary interest in many fields and specifically in biology. Different DAGs may encode equivalent conditional independence structures, implying limited ability, with observational data, to identify causal relations. In many contexts however, measurements are collected under heterogeneous settings where variables are subject to exogenous interventions. Interventional data can improve the structure learning process whenever the targets of an intervention are known. However, these are often uncertain or completely unknown, as in the context of drug target discovery. We propose a Bayesian method for learning dependence structures and intervention targets from data subject to interventions on unknown variables of the system. Selected features of our approach include a DAG-Wishart prior on the DAG parameters, and the use of variable selection priors to express uncertainty on the targets. We provide theoretical results on the correct asymptotic identification of intervention targets and derive sufficient conditions for Bayes factor and posterior ratio consistency of the graph structure. Our method is applied in simulations and real-data world settings, to analyze perturbed protein data and assess antiepileptic drug therapies. Details of the MCMC algorithm and proofs of propositions are provided in the supplementary materials, together with more extensive results on simulations and applied studies. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.
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  • Link to dataset related to article "Clinical relevance of clonal hematopoiesis in persons aged ≥80 years"
    This record contains data related to article "Clinical relevance of clonal hematopoiesis in persons aged ≥80 years" Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is associated with increased risk of cancers and inflammation-related diseases. This phenomenon becomes common in persons aged ≥80 years, in whom the implications of CHIP are not well defined. We performed a mutational screening in 1794 persons aged ≥80 years and investigated the relationships between CHIP and associated pathologies. Mutations were observed in one-third of persons aged ≥80 years and were associated with reduced survival. Mutations in JAK2 and splicing genes, multiple mutations (DNMT3A, TET2, and ASXL1 with additional genetic lesions), and variant allele frequency ≥0.096 had positive predictive value for myeloid neoplasms. Combining mutation profiles with abnormalities in red blood cell indices improved the ability of myeloid neoplasm prediction. On this basis, we defined a predictive model that identifies 3 risk groups with different probabilities of developing myeloid neoplasms. Mutations in DNMT3A, TET2, ASXL1, or JAK2 were associated with coronary heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Cytopenia was common in persons aged ≥80 years, with the underlying cause remaining unexplained in 30% of cases. Among individuals with unexplained cytopenia, the presence of highly specific mutation patterns was associated with myelodysplastic-like phenotype and a probability of survival comparable to that of myeloid neoplasms. Accordingly, 7.5% of subjects aged ≥80 years with cytopenia had presumptive evidence of myeloid neoplasm. In summary, specific mutational patterns define different risk of developing myeloid neoplasms vs inflammatory-associated diseases in persons aged ≥80 years. In individuals with unexplained cytopenia, mutational status may identify those subjects with presumptive evidence of myeloid neoplasms.
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  • Additional file 2 of Obstetric and neonatal outcomes in women with pregnancy associated cancer: a population-based study in Lombardy, Northern Italy
    Additional file 2.
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  • Additional file 3 of Obstetric and neonatal outcomes in women with pregnancy associated cancer: a population-based study in Lombardy, Northern Italy
    Additional file 3.
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