Palaeoenvironmental and stratigraphic reconstruction of the Lower-Middle Eocene Foraminiferal Limestone of Pag Island (Croatia) - Raw Data

Published: 4 July 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/b96pxy8p9k.1


This dataset contains the raw data resulting from the quantitative analysis of the benthic foraminifera association and the skeletal assemblage within the lower to middle Eocene carbonate succession exposed at the Island of Pag (Croatia). The aim of this work is to provide the palaeoenvironmental, palaeobathymetric, and stratigraphic reconstructions and clarify the dynamics of the carbonate factories in the Dinaric Foreland Basin. More than 100 samples have been collected within the Foraminiferal Limestone and the overlying Transitional beds units. Quantitative analysis takes into account both large benthic (LBF) and small benthic (SBF) foraminifera. Based on the analysed LBF and nannofossil associations, the Foraminiferal Limestone has been dated to the early Eocene (Ypresian) and the Middle Eocene (late Lutetian/early Bartonian). Thanks to the analysis of the skeletal assemblage and the foraminiferal assemblage, and multivariate statistics, it was possible to identify seven main biofacies within the Foraminiferal Limestone and one biofacies within the Transitional Beds. The porcelaneous and agglutinated benthic foraminifera biofacies (BF1) indicates a well-illuminated, oligotrophic to mesotrophic, shallow-water, lagoonal environment. The hyaline SBF and encrusting benthic foraminifera biofacies (BF2) developed in a shallow water, inner-ramp environment, and is related to a vegetated seafloor. The nummulitid biofacies (BF3) indicates a moderately high energy, shallow water environment, whereas the comminuted bioclasts and nummulitid biofacies (BF4) indicates a low-energy, shallow water environment, both deposited in inner-to-middle ramp settings. The nummulitid and orthophragminid biofacies (BF5) indicates a moderate energy environment, deposited in middle ramp settings. The nummulitid and serpulid biofacies (BF6) consists of transported material from the inner ramp deposited in middle ramps settings. The orthophragminid and nummulitid biofacies (BF7) indicates a below-wave base, outer shelf setting and the planktic foraminifera biofacies (BF8), which is recorded in the Transitional Beds, deposited in hemipelagic environment, indicating the final drowning of the carbonate ramp. Based on the foraminiferal counting, quantitative parameters such as the orthophragminids/nummulitids ratio (O/N), the planktic/benthic foraminifera ratio (P/B), and the hyaline/porcelaneous foraminifera ratio (H/P) were calculated, indicating that the succession formed along a distally steepened ramp profile, with a progressively deepening of the depositional environment. Quantification serves as a crucial instrument for precise and reliable palaeoenvironmental reconstruction, playing a pivotal role in comparing diverse successions.



University of Milano-Bicocca


Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences


Paleontology, Carbonate Sedimentology